A total knee replacement is essentially a cartilage replacement with a synthetic surface. The knee is not replaced in its entirety, as is usually assumed, but rather an artificial substitute for cartilage is implanted on the ends of the bones. Typically, a metal alloy is used on the femur and a plastic spacer is used on the tibia and kneecap (patella). This results in a new, smooth cushion and a painless functioning joint.
You would be admitted to the hospital the evening/night before the operation and evaluated again to ensure that you are fit and healthy to undergo the procedure.
For knee replacement surgery, two forms of anesthesia are routinely utilized. The First type of anesthesia is Spinal Anesthesia with Epidural Analgesia, which is very commonly used, works by numbing your legs, so you do not feel the operation. This is done by placing numbing medicine around the nerves that would go to your legs using a small catheter in your lower back. You are also given medicine to relax you and you may fall asleep, but you can still breathe on your own.
To expose the injured portion of your joint, the surgeon will create an incision across the front of your knee.
The standard incision size varies from approximately 6–10 inches in length.
During the operation, the surgeon moves your kneecap to the side and cuts away the damaged cartilage and a small amount of bone.
They then replace the damaged tissue with new metal and plastic components.
The components combine to form an artificial joint that is biologically compatible and mimics the movement of your natural knee.
Most knee replacement procedures take 60 to 90 minutes to complete.
This will be determined by your hemoglobin level before surgery. With use of tourniquet, blood loss during surgery is usually minimal. So during surgery, usually blood transfusion is not needed. But sometimes, we might advise after surgery, considering Haemoglobin level and the drain output coming out of the operative wound.
Metal and a medical-grade plastic known as polyethylene are used to make artificial knee implants.
The components can be attached to the bone in two ways. One option is to use bone cement, which takes about 10 minutes to set. The other method is a cement-free approach in which the components are coated with a porous layer that allows bone to grow onto them.
A surgeon may use both procedures during the same operation in some instances.
Yes, however we will provide you with suitable medication to keep you comfortable. We begin by managing your pain with pills following surgery and can give intravenous medication as needed. In the hospital and at home, your surgeon will discuss which pain management options are appropriate for you.
Physiotherapy is the most important and inescapable component of the treatment! There is no such thing as a scientific entity as No Physio Knee Replacement!!! BUT it will not be an unpleasant or painful experience!! Physiotherapy can be reduced to 10 or 15 days after surgery with our FAST TRACK Technique, under the care and supervision of our trained physiotherapist.
Physiotherapy is used to strengthen the weakened muscles around the knee joint and to improve the movement of the new joint in order to help you learn to walk and improve your gait or walking pattern. In some cases, we may even ask you to begin therapy one week or ten days before the operation date.
You may experience a tiny region of numbness around the scar, which may persist a year or longer and is not dangerous.
Kneeling may be painful for a year or more. When some patients move their knees, they hear a clicking sound. This is the result of the fake surfaces interacting and is not a severe problem. Depending on the degree of stiffness you had before surgery, you may not be able to restore full knee flexion (bending) or extension (straightening).
Almost all current complete knee implants have a fairly similar fundamental Total Condylar design with some slight variations. Some of the joints contain metallic components that are cemented to the ends of the thigh bone (Femur) and leg bone (Tibia) and have a plastic insert between the two metallic components (Metal backed Tibial component). It does provide certain technical benefits to the surgeon. In contrast, some other designs use an All-Polyethylene tibial component called an all-poly tibia, in which the femoral component is metallic and the tibial component is entirely plastic.
Almost all current complete knee implants have a fundamental Total Condylar design that is extremely similar.
Most contemporary designs of conventional total knee replacements achieve an average of 120 degrees of knee bending (flexion), which is sufficient to do most daily activities such as walking, ascending stairs, getting in and out of a car or rickshaw, rising from a chair, and so on.
If your everyday activities include kneeling, crouching, or sitting cross-legged, a high flexion knee joint can be implanted. However, it is unknown whether efforts to improve flexion could have a negative impact on the implanted joint, such as early loosening. As a result, one should exercise caution when engaging in activities that induce excessive flexion of the knee joint.